(Cerebrovascular Accident; CVA; Cerebral Infarct)
- An ischemic stroke is caused by a blocked blood vessel. It is the most common cause of stroke.
- A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by a ruptured blood vessel.
|Hemorrhagic vs. Ischemic Stroke|
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- Atherosclerosis—a build-up of fatty substances along the inner lining of the artery that gradually decrease the area the blood can flow through
- A blood clot that has traveled from other parts of the body, such as the neck or heart
- Inflammation of the blood vessels
- Race—People of African American, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific Islander descent are at increased risk.
- Age: Older than 55 years of age.
- Family history of stroke.
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol levels—specifically high-LDL cholesterol
- Low bone mineral density, especially in women
- Obesity and metabolic syndrome
- Sleep apnea
- High blood homocysteine level
- Type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance
- Atrial fibrillation
- Blood disorders such as sickle cell disease and polycythemia
- Vascular dementia
- Disease of heart valves, such as mitral stenosis
- Prior stroke or cardiovascular disease, such as heart attack
- Peripheral artery disease
- Transient ischemic attack (TIA)—a warning stroke with stroke-like symptoms that go away shortly after they appear
Conditions that increase your risk of blood clots such as:
- Certain autoimmune diseases
- Migraine with aura
- Having a blood vessel abnormality
- Weakness or numbness of face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body
- Trouble speaking or understanding
- Trouble seeing in one or both eyes
- Lightheadedness, trouble walking, loss of balance, or coordination
- Severe headache with no known cause
- Reduce the chance of later strokes
- Improve function affected by the stroke
- Overcome disabilities
- Oxygen therapy
- Precautions to prevent choking
- Decrease blood pressure
- Correct irregular heart rhythms
- Extracranial/intracranial bypass—Blood vessel from the scalp is used to reroute blood supply around the blocked artery.
- Embolectomy—A catheter is threaded through blood vessels to the clot. It can remove the clot or deliver clot-dissolving medication directly to the area
- Physical therapy—to regain as much movement as possible
- Occupational therapy—to assist in everyday tasks and self care
- Speech therapy—to improve swallowing and speech challenges
- Psychological therapy—to improve mood and decrease depression
- Exercise regularly.
- Eat more fruits, vegetables , and whole grains . Limit dietary salt and fat .
- If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways to quit.
- Increase your consumption of fish.
- Drink alcohol only in moderation: no more than 1-2 drinks per day.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Check blood pressure frequently . Follow your doctor's recommendations for keeping it in a safe range.
- Take a low dose of aspirin if your doctor says it is safe.
- Keep chronic medical conditions under control. This includes high cholesterol and diabetes.
- Talk to your doctor about the use of a statins. These types of drugs may help prevent certain kinds of strokes in some people.
- Seek medical care if you have symptoms of a stroke, even if symptoms stop.
- If you use drugs, talk to your doctor about rehabilitation programs.
American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
National Stroke Association http://www.stroke.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation http://www.heartandstroke.com
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Ischemic strokes (clots). American Stroke Association website. Available at: American Stroke Association website. Available at: http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/TypesofStroke/IschemicClots/Ischemic-Strokes-Clots%5FUCM%5F310939%5FArticle.jsp#.Vk3ipE2FPIU. Updated August 29, 2014. Accessed November 18, 2014.
Long term management of stroke. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 30, 2014. Accessed November 18, 2014.
Neuroimaging for acute stroke. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 14, 2014. Accessed November 18, 2014.
Stroke (acute management). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 17, 2014. Accessed November 18, 2014.
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3/28/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Park Y, Subar AF, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A. Dietary fiber intake and mortality in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(12):1061-1068.
2/7/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Bushnell C, McCollough LD, Awad IA, et al. Guideline for the prevention of stroke in women. Available at: http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/early/2014/02/06/01.str.0000442009.06663.48. Accessed November 18, 2014.
6/2/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Myint PK, Cleark AB, Kwok CS, et al. Bone mineral density and incidence of stroke: European prospective investigation into cancer-Norfolk population-based study, systemic review, and meta-analysis. Stroke. 2014;45(2):373-382.
6/2/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Imfeld P, Bodmer M,Schuerch M, Jick SS, Meier CR. Risk of incident stroke in patients with Alzheimer disease or vascular dementia. Neurology. 2013;81(10):910-919.
8/11/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Molnar MZ, Mucsi I, Novak M, et al. Association of incident obstructive sleep apnoea with outcomes in a large cohort of US veterans. Thorax. 2015;70(9):888-895.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 12/2014 -
- Update Date: 08/11/2015 -